Alan Cutler writes on "The War That Wasn't." This article, which is long on assertions and short on citations, takes the point that the well-known heresy trial of Galileo was an abherration, rather than the norm. He states that the war between science and religion is more of a media-driven construct than reality:
[The media] depict the religious orthodoxy as historically bent on squelching reason and scientific inquiry in a desperate effort to protect bankrupt dogmas. Partisans of religion have their own version, in which science is the aggressor.
He also suggests something that I have long been thought to be true but have not followed up on:
Historians and sociologists have found that divisions within the Church have been typically more important than any conflict with science in estranging people from orthodoxy.
Thanks to Marilyn Savitt-Kring.